The list of references contains bibliographic information about every source cited in the report. Research materials are not included in the list of references, but rather in the parts of the report dealing with the research implementation, data, and methods (see Research Implementation). All sources cited must be relevant to the work in question. Their use indicates the extent of study and knowledge associated with the report. An attempt should be made to use original sources for both domestic and foreign works. The heading References is to be used for the list of references. (See References for diverse examples of how to list them.)
In-text citations and the sources appearing in the list of references must correspond with one another accurately and precisely. The list of references is generally presented in alphabetical order according to the authors’ last names. The basic structure of a bibliographic reference consists of four parts, each of which is described in the following list.
Who—the writer, author or oral communication source – always a person,
When—the year of publication (if unknown, the abbreviation n.d. [no date] may be used),
What—the title or heading of the source, written in italics, and
Where—details concerning the publication, edition, place of publication and publisher, publication series, digital object identifier (DOI), universal resource number (URN), or URL, etc.
The edition of the source is only indicated if other than the first. Edition details can be abbreviated, for example ed. (edition), 2nd ed. (second edition), or Rev. ed. (revised edition).
Abbreviations added to Finnish publishers’ names are generally not capitalised (oy., ry., ky.), with WSOY being an exception.
When necessary, the exact publication or revision date is indicated, for example the publication date of a newspaper or radio broadcast. The access date of online publications must always be indicated.
Books with a known author
For books with a known author, the basic details concerning the source are to be indicated. If several works by the same author appear in the list of references, they are listed in chronological order (from oldest to most recent).
Haasio, A. 2009. Johdon assistentin tiedonhankinnan opas [The executive assistant’s guide to information retrieval]. Helsinki: WSOYpro.
Hirsjärvi, S., Remes, P., & Sajavaara, P. 2009. Tutki ja kirjoita [Research and write]. 15th. ed., Rev. ed. Helsinki: Tammi.
Books and other publications with no known author
In lieu of the name of the author, the title of the publication is indicated and placed in the list in alphabetical order. In-text citations do not refer to an author, but briefly to the title of the work.
Esteettömyydellä osallisuuteen Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulussa [Barrier-free participation at JAMK University of Applied Sciences]. 2009. In M. Hirvonen (Ed.), Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun puheenvuorot [JAMK University of Applied Sciences’ Council Sessions], 2. Accessed 15 April 2009. Retrieved from http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jamk–1236326673–1
Kielitoimiston sanakirja [The new dictionary of modern Finnish]. 2008. CD-ROM. Version 2.0. In Kotimaisten kielten tutkimuskeskuksen julkaisuja [Institute for the Languages of Finland], 149. Helsinki: Institute for the Languages of Finland.
Publications with a corporate author (author as publisher)
When a publication has a corporate author, the name of the organization is listed in lieu of the name of the author, and Author is listed as the publisher.
Finnish Standards Association SFS. 2007. Asiakirjan tekstin asettelu ja tunnistetiedot [Layout of documents and identification of data] (SFS 2487.2007) (8th ed.). Helsinki: Author. Accessed 12 May 2009. Retrieved from http://sales.sfs.fi/sfs/servlets/ProductServlet?action=productInfo&productID=189429
The listing of details concerning article sources is handled according to the same basic principles. Additionally, for journal articles paginated by volume, the volume number of the publication is indicated and preceded by a comma. The volume number, together with the journal title, are presented in italics. For journal articles paginated by issue, the issue number is enclosed in parentheses and appended to the volume number with no character spacing. N.b. No italics are used for the issue number or its surrounding parentheses. Finally, the page number or range where the article appears is indicated. For daily newspaper article sources, the date of publication is used as the volume number.
Bernaards, C. M., Ariens, G. A. M., Simons, M., Knol, D. L., & Hildebrandt, V. H. 2008. Improving work style behavior in computer workers with neck and upper limb symptoms. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 1, 87–101. (The number 1 following the title of the publication signifies the volume in which the article appears on pages 87–101.)
Karlsson, M. 2009. Moniallergikko voi pitää lemmikkiä [Patients with multiple allergies can live with pets]. Tesso, 2, 24–30.
Leinonen, E. 2009. Jyväskylään viime vuotta enemmän kongressivieraita [More convention visitors in Jyväskylä during the last year]. Keskisuomalainen, 2 April 2009, 15.
For articles published as part of a collection, the author, the date of publication, the title of the article, and basic information about the source in which the article appears are indicated. N.b. While sentence case capitalisation is used for the title of source publications (including articles published as part of a collection), the title of the collection (i.e. the source containing the article) is written using title case capitalisation.
Lerkkanen, J. 2008. Sähköisen portfolion käsitteet opinto-ohjaajakoulutuksessa ja sen käyttö opintojen hyväksilukemisen välineenä [The concept of electronic portfolios in study counsellor education and their use as a tool in recognizing prior learning]. In A. Niskanen and R. Virtanen (Eds.), Taidatko tunnistamisen [Can You Recognise]? Jyväskylä: JAMK University of Applied Sciences, 52–56.
Theses, reports and other unpublished print sources
It is important to indicate the nature of the source (e.g., thesis or report).
Laitinen, A. 2008. Maatilayrittäjän RME-biodieselin laadunhallinta [RME biodiesel quality control for farm entrepreneurs]. Bachelor’s thesis. JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Bioeconomy, Degree Programme in Agriculture and Rural Industries. Accessed 15 April 2009. Retrieved from http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jamk–1212485708–6
Ruuska, R. 2009. Minutes from staff meeting 15 April 2009. JAMK University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Bioeconomy.
Non-print sources (personal communications)
Non-print sources include interviews, telephone conversations, as well as other important oral and non-print personal communications. Personal communication sources should generally not be indicated in the list of references. Since the information gathered from such sources is, by its very nature, unrecoverable, and because it may have come about as a result of the writer’s research, it becomes problematic to include these sources in the list of references. Among other concerns, readers would not be able to use these sources. Therefore, the writer is advised to follow the instructions for citing personal communications in the text—and to only cite such sources in the text.
The main objective in the documentation of electronic sources is to enable the reader to locate those sources in the event that he or she desires to do so. Properly documented electronic sources contain information about
the author (if there is no known author, the title of the publication is used),
the year of publication,
the title of the work or heading of the page, and possibly the type of medium (for example an e-mail message, CD-ROM, or DVD video),
other information concerning the work (for example in the case of an audio CD or PDF document) such as the editor, edition, publisher, page numbers, etc.,
remarks and clarifying details about, e.g. the type of publication (bachelor’s or master’s thesis, meeting minutes, etc.), reference material, or website,
the date of access of the source material in dd Month yyyy format (for example 8 January 2014), and
the DOI, URN, or URL.
a) Online publications
The following three examples show how to document sources from websites where an author and the year when the source was created or last updated are indicated.
Horsmanheimo, P. 2009. Tilintarkastajajärjestelmän kokonaisuudistus [Complete overhaul of the account auditor system]. Finland Chamber of Commerce 17 February 2009 statement to the Ministry of Employment and the Economy. Accessed on 4 January 2014. Retrieved from http://kkksite.ezdev.asiakas.org/Edunvalvonta/Lausunnot/Tilintarkastajajarjestelman-kokonaisuudistus2
Priddle, A. 2014. Detroit Auto Show: 2015 C-Class will be first car to be made in Mercedes’ Alabama plant. Detroit Free Press, 12 January 2014. Accessed on 13 January 2014. Retrieved from http://www.freep.com/article/20140112/BUSINESS03/301120152
Stevens, J., & Crawford, S. 2014. Project Reporting Instructions. Adapted from Raportointiohje [Reporting Instructions] by Liukko, S., & Perttula, S. 2013. JAMK University of Applied Sciences’ Open Learning Materials. Accessed on 15 January 2014. Retrieved from http://oppimateriaalit.jamk.fi/projectreportinginstructions
The following two examples show how to document sources from websites where the author and year are indicated, but not the original date of publication.
Balachandran, K., Bi, Q., Rudrapatna, A., Seymour, J., Soni, R., & Weber, A. 2009. Performance assessment of next-generation wireless mobile systems. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 4, 35–58. Accessed on 16 April 2009. doi:10.1002/bltj.20335
Niinikangas, L. 2009. Tervapääsky. Puutarhakahvila Tervapääsky [Tervapääsky Historic Villa]. Accessed on 16 April 2009. Retrieved from http://www.lighthouse.fi/tervapaasky.htm
The following three examples show how to document sources from websites where no known author is indicated.
Guide on how to interview and photograph a child. N.d. Page on the Central Union for Child Welfare’s website. Accessed on 4 January 2014. Retrieved from http://www.lskl.fi/en/information/guide_on_how_to_interview_and_photograph_a_child
Board and paper mills. 2014. Page on Valmet Corporation’s website. Accessed on 4 January 2014. Retrieved from http://valmet.com/en/products/paper_board.nsf/WebWID/WTB–131119–2257B–8DB6A?OpenDocument#.UtbMH3kYiBI
Innovation funding with proven impact. 2013. PDF document on Tekes’ website. Accessed on 4 January 2014. Retrieved from http://www.tekes.fi/en/tekes/results-and-impact/
b) E-mail messages, videos and other similar sources
Paukku, P. 2009. Luokkahuoneen ergonomia [Classroom ergonomics]. DVD video. Jyväskylä: JAMK University of Applied Sciences.
When listing an e-mail message as a source, clarifying details regarding the contents of the message, the sender, and the recipient must be included.
Pollari, P. 2012. Quality culture at JAMK. E-mail message of 24 February 2012. Recipient J. Stevens. Communication of decision to share results of Language Centre’s “Quality Culture at JAMK” survey with Language Centre staff.
c) Radio and television broadcasts
Kansansankari: Arja Koriseva [National hero: Arja Koriseva]. 2013. Television broadcast. Yle TV1 30 December 2013.
Ronja ryövärintytär [Ronia the robber’s daughter]. 1984. Directed by T. Danielsson. Motion picture. Yle Fem 5 January 2014.
Filmiryhmä: Musiikkia mykkäelokuvaan [Film group: Music for a silent film]. 2014. Radio broadcast episode. Produced by J. P. Pulkkinen. Aired on Yle Radio 1, published on Yle Areena 2 January 2014.