5.1 In-text Citations

The publications and articles in the list of references appear in alphabetical order according to the last name of the author(s), with the first word of each citation being the author’s last name. Along with the source material cited in the text, the following information is also needed: author’s last name + year of publication + page number(s). For the sake of simplicity, this basic principle is to be followed when citing sources of all kinds, even if the standard recommendation might be otherwise. In the forthcoming text, instructions are given concerning the most common types of in-text citations. The examples appear within code blocks, and are indented from the left margin for added clarity.

Citations applying to one sentence

When the author is not named in the signal phrase, the reference to the source is placed in parentheses before the full stop.

The entrepreneur is responsible for the finances, growth, competencies and personnel of his company (Koskinen 2009, 158).

When the author is named in the signal phrase, the year is indicated in parentheses after the last name of the author.

According to Koskinen (2009, 158), the entrepreneur is responsible for the finances, growth, competencies and personnel of his company.

Citations applying to more than one sentence

When the author is not named in the signal phrase, the reference to the source is indicated in parentheses and placed after the last sentence of the citation. The reference ends with a full stop, which comes before the closing parenthesis.

The entrepreneur is responsible for the finances, growth, competencies and personnel of his company. Not only the entrepreneurs who own their companies, but also entrepreneurs who are majority shareholders in companies, want to make decisions and be responsible for the consequences of these decisions. (Koskinen 2009, 158.)

When the author’s name and year of publication are used in the signal phrase, the page number or range is indicated in parentheses after the last sentence of the citation. The abbreviation ibid. may be used if successive references are being made to the same source.

On the other hand, Sipari (2008) emphasizes the importance of everyday life in the rehabilitation process of a child. According to him, a good life for a child includes the ability to take initiative, independence, meaningful activities and participation. Rehabilitation should be integrated into the child’s activities at home and at day-care or school. In this way, hobbies, school and therapy support one another. (68–70.)

When rehabilitation is made part of the child’s everyday life, he/she isn’t carrying out any rehabilitation activities, but rather participating in the activities important to his/her family and to himself/herself. The rehabilitation is also fruitful, owing to the repetition demanded by everyday chores. The child learns the same things as other children, and therefore has a good chance of coping in social situations. This effectively staves off exclusion. (ibid., 70–71.)

Citation of multiple sources by the same author published in the same year

For the citation of multiple sources by the same author published in the same year, reference is made to individual works using lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.).

Styles facilitate professional word processing skills (Keinonen 2009b, 71). In presentation graphics, the most important things are graphics and a concentration on oral communication (Keinonen 2009a, 8).

Citation of sources with two or more authors

When the authors are named in the signal phrase, the name appearing last is preceded by the word and. For parenthetical citations, an ampersand (&) precedes the name appearing last.

According to Reiman, Pietikäinen, and Oedewald (2008, 48), safety culture refers to an organisation’s ability and desire to understand the characteristics of safe operations, dangers and how to prevent them, as well as the ability and desire to operate safely.

Safety culture refers to an organisation’s ability and desire to understand the characteristics of safe operations, dangers and how to prevent them, as well as the ability and desire to operate safely (Reiman, Pietikäinen, & Oedewald 2008, 48).

If there are three or more authors, all of them are acknowledged by name the first time the source is cited. Beginning with the second citation of the source, reference is made to the first author’s name followed by and others or and colleagues in the signal phrase, or by the abbreviation et al. in parentheses when the first author is not named in the signal phrase.

. . . good prose style, of which the hallmarks are smooth progression, clarity, readability and compactness, as well as grammatical correctness (Hirsjärvi, Remes, & Sajavaara 2009, 291).

Hirsjärvi and colleagues have stated that it is the researcher’s obligation to verify that a solution has been found for the research problem. The results section of the report must also address any unanswered research questions. The main results, or ”findings,” are interpreted according to the design of the study. (Hirsjärvi et al. 2009, 262–263.)

Citation of sources with no known author

If a source being cited has no known author, reference is made to the title of the work.

If an area smells musty and dank, the cause and source of the malodour must be identified (Kosteusvauriot työpaikoilla [Moisture problems in the workplace] 2009, 49).

Successive citations of the same source

The abbreviation ibid. may be used only within the same chapter when citing the same source as the one cited last. The page numbers of cited sources are also significant in this respect. If two or more successive references are made to the same page of the same source, it is not necessary to indicate a page number after ibid. However, if successive references are made to the same source, but different pages, the page number or range is indicated. Note that the abbreviation ibid. is always written in lower case.

Pohjola (2009) thinks that all points of view should be taken into consideration in work meetings.. . . (There may even be extensive reference to the same source.) (ibid., 25.)

The management of information-processing thinking, metalearning and self-evaluation skills under the guidance of the teacher (ibid., 107).

Simultaneous citation of multiple sources

Semicolons (;) are used to separate references to different sources. Typically, sources are listed in alphabetical order, although chronological or hierarchical ordering is also possible.

. . .. A macrosystem is composed of a society’s beliefs and values, such as legislation, politics, culture and ideology. (Hietikko 2009, 45; Jaako 2008, 22; Sailio 2008, 10.)

Citation of non-print sources (personal communications)

In-text citations of personal communications are handled in the same way as citations to other sources. Types of personal communications include, e.g. interviews of subject-matter experts and telephone conversations. Personal communications often represent important sources of information, and therefore detailed bibliographic information must be disclosed in the list of references (see List of References, Non-print sources [personal communications]).

. . .. According to the physician, the surgery was successful and the ACL was very stable. (Helminen 2007.)

If interviews constitute part of the research data—thematic discussions, for example—these are not included in the list of references.

Citation of electronic sources

Electronic sources are cited in the same way as other sources, but if no page number or publisher information is available, these are not indicated in the reference. If the author of the source is known, reference is made in name-year format; otherwise, reference is made to the title of the work or page heading as well as the year. Radio and television broadcasts are cited according to the name of the programme and the year. (See List of References, Electronic sources.)

13% of the municipalities buy their needed IT services from companies (Silen 2009, 23).

A patent or other protection must first be applied for. Only then can it be promoted at fairs and in the mass media. (Keksijän muistilista [The inventor's checklist] 2009.)

The topic’s timing and relevance to working life nevertheless failed to survive the introduction, as they should have . . . (see Liukko & Perttula 2013, introduction).

Citation of statutes

Statutes typically have official abbreviations that can be used when citing them as sources, for example “legislation” (in Finnish, laki, abbreviation L), “decree” (in Finnish, asetus, abbreviation A), and “government proposal” (in Finnish, hallituksen esitys, abbreviation HE). Detailed information on these sources is to be entered in the list of references (see List of References, Books and other publications with no known author).

. . .. The Jyväskylä area’s labour market is composed of Jyväskylä, Hankasalmi, Laukaa, Muurame, Petäjävesi, Toivakka and Uurainen. (A 26.2.2009/92.)

Citation of standards

There are established abbreviations in use for standards, for example the abbreviation for the Finnish Standards Association SFS (in Finnish, Suomen Standardisoimisliitto SFS ry) is SFS. Following the abbreviation of a standard, the standard number as well as the page number or range must be cited. (See List of References, Books and other publications with no known author.)

. . .. The publisher is the individual or organisation responsible for the production and distribution of the document (SFS 5831, 1998, 3).. . .

Citation of secondary sources

A primary source need not be specified in the list of references if the source itself is not cited in the text. In the following example, Möttönen’s article is a secondary source in which Hyyräläinen’s original work is cited:

According to Möttönen (2009, 64), Hyyryläinen (2004) defines a network as a highly confidential relationship built on mutual interest, a shared value base and compliance with ethical ground rules.